A fallacy in logic is a kind of error in reasoning. Most academic writings need you to make an argument that is free from mistakes. So to make discussions more logical, we need to understand common errors we make in logic. It is essential for students as well as for advertisements and political writings. Since they require rhetorical devices to convince people that their arguments are valid.
Arguers use these errors unintentionally or intentionally to trick people. Sometimes the word “fallacy” indicates a false belief. They are the defects that weaken the argument. More frequently, people make these errors within public discussions and debates. At first, Aristotle explained the study of fallacies and listed thirteen fallacies. They are the defects that weaken the argument.
List of Logical Fallacies
Here is a list of some common fallacies that we make in arguments.
1. Casual Fallacy
It is an error to identify the cause of the mistake. It occurs due to the lack of evidence for the done did. If two things are relatable, then that does not mean one indicates the other. For example, Since you like vegetables, your parents must be farmers.
2. Post Hoc Fallacy
It is an error that takes place when you believe the action is happening before the cause to be the reason for the mistake. A lot of superstitions come under the category of post hoc fallacy. For example, we haven’t lost any game since I got my lucky shoes.
3. Strawman Fallacy
The name of this fallacy based on a scarecrow. In this fallacy, your opponent misrepresents your argument to disapprove of it. For instance, the President says, “The nation is in debt, and we should not spend much on the defense.”
4. Bandwagon Fallacy
Bandwagon fallacy assumes a reason to be untrue if the majority of people consider it to be so. If any reason is famous, it becomes a fallacy. For example, since the majority of the countries support war with Iraq, that means it is correct.
5. The Hasty Generalization Fallacy
It is the most common fallacy in logic. If someone draws a conclusion based on a lack of evidence or make a rush in concluding. For example, since Christine had a bad experience in her previous relationship, she decides that all boys are the same.
6. Red Herring Fallacy
When an argument distracts other arguments of the fellow people, the error is known as red herring fallacy. Suppose a boy says that I am in pain due to my break up. And his father says that think about the poor people who don’t even have food to eat; then your problem will seem meaningless.
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