History of the Mughal Empire | A Glorious Era

Mughals or Moghuls are the Muslim people. The Mughals were the Descendents of the Timur on their father’s side and Genghis Khan from their mother’s side. The Mughals ruled India for around two centuries. The Mughals left behind many art and architectural legacies. There is a reason why the Mughal period was known as a glorious era. Not only this, but the administrative and revenue system was remarkable. 


Babur founded the Mughal Empire. The first Mughal Emperor, Babur declared Jehad and adopted the title Ghazi. Babur came to India in the 15th century to annex the Punjab state but soon decided to rule the entire country. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat and quickly occupied Delhi. Soon Babur announced himself as “Emperor of Hindustan”. This led to the establishment of the Mughal Empire and the end of the Delhi Sultanate. 


Humayun was the son of Babur. He fought two battles with Sher Shah Suri and was ultimately defeated. Soon after the death of Sher Shah Suri, he decided to regain his empire and won the Battle of Sirhind. Humayun-Nama was written by Gulbadan Begum. 


The third Mughal Emperor, Akbar introduced a land revenue system called the Zabti system. He also introduced the Mansabdari system to organize the army. He is the most celebrated Emperor of the Mughal era. Akbar propagated the idea of ‘Sulh-i-Kul’ meaning universal peace. He even discouraged the practice of Sati and encouraged widow remarriage. 


Jahangir became the Emperor in 1605 and served till 1627. He was a marvelous patron of the arts and paintings. He commissioned some of the finest miniatures and paintings. The Mughal paintings reached its peak during his reign. 

Shah Jahan

The Mughal Empire was at its zenith during his reign due to 100 years of unparalleled peace and harmony. The Mughal architecture reached its peak during Shah Jahan’s time. He built the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Red Fort, etc. Indeed Shah Jahan is remembered for the Taj Mahal, a massive white marble mausoleum built for his wife Mumtaz Mahal in her memory 


Aurangzeb ascended the throne in 1658 as the sixth Mughal Emperor after Shah Jahan. He was known to destroy many temples to erase history. Moreover, he also kept his five sons away from the court whose ultimate result was that the sons were not trained to rule. After his death, the Mughal Empire started dwindling.