Straighterline BIO201L Lab 6 The Skeletal System Worksheet

Question # 00631730
Course Code : BIO201L
Subject: Biology
Due on: 01/17/2022
Posted On: 01/16/2022 08:26 PM
Tutorials: 1
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Student Name: Nicholaus McDevit

Access Code (located on the lid of your lab kit): AC-3VSAZEM

Pre-Lab Questions:

1.            List the functions of the skeletal system.

Support, Movement, Protection, Storage of bone marrow, Red marrow production.

2.            What material contributes the greatest to the compressive strength of bone? Calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate

3.            Briefly describe the process of bone remodeling.

The bones are able to be reshape from adapting to the physical needs.

Experiment 1: Classification of Bones

Table 6: Classification of Bones

Bone Name

Classification by Shape

Classification by Location

 

Short

Appendicular

 

Long

Appendicular

 

Long

Appendicular

 

Long

Appendicular

Tarsals

Short

Appendicular

Sternum

Flat

Axial

 

Long

Appendicular

 

Irregular

Axial

 

Flat

Axial

 

Flat

Axial

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.            Why is it important to classify bones?

2.            Aside from length, what are some other common characteristics of a long bone? Are long bones typically associated with the axial or appendicular skeleton?

3.            Compare flat bones and long bones. How are they different? How are they the same?

 Experiment 2: Digital Slide Image Examination—Bone

Post-Lab Questions

1.            Label the arrows in the following digital slide images: Cortical Bone:

2.            Compare and contrast cortical and trabecular bone.

3.            What is the purpose of cortical bone? What is the purpose of trabecular bone?

4.            What are trabeculae? What is their function?

5.            What are haversian systems? What is their function?

Experiment 5: Physical Skeleton – The Axial Skeleton

Table 9: Cervical Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature

Observations

Size of cervical vertebrae in comparison to those of the thoracic and lumbar region

 

Shape of the vertebral foramen

 

Spinous Process of the C3 - C6 Vertebrae

 

Spinous Process of the C7 Vertebra

 

 

Table 10: Thoracic Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature

Observations

Size and weight of the thoracic vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region

 

Shape of the vertebral body

 

Appearance and projection direction of the Spinous Process

 

 

 

 

Table 11: Lumbar Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature

Observations

Size of the lumbar vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region

 

Shape of the vertebral body

 

Appearance and projection direction of the Spinous Process

 

 

Table 15: Rib Feature Observations

Rib Feature

Observations

Length of ribs 1 - 7 (do they increase or decrease in length?)

 

Length or ribs 8 - 12 (do they increase or decrease in length?)

 

Articulation of the ribs and thoracic vertebrae (notice the specific rib and vertebra that articulate)

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

  1. What are the three components of the axial skeleton? Describe the function of each.
  2. On the skull below, fill in the blanks with the correct bone names.

 A-

B-

C-

D-

E-

F-  

3.            For the following bones, state whether they are cranial or facial bones and give their location.

Bone                                                     Facial or Cranial Location

Temporal Bones              

Mandible            

Vomer 

Zygomatic Bones             

Parietal Bones  

Ethmoid Bone  

Sphenoid Bone

Lacrimal Bones 

4.            What are the three regions of the vertebral column? Describe the general shape and size of the vertebrae in each region.

5.            What are the atlas and axis? What are their functions?

6.            On the vertebra below, fill in the blanks with the correct vertebral structure.

A-

B-

C-

D-

E-

 7.           What is the purpose of the thoracic cage?

8.            Describe the three components of the sternum.

9.            Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs and floating ribs.

Experiment 6: Virtual Model – The Axial Skeleton

1.            What features are located inferior to the cranium, and superior to the mandibular? Identify the category here. How many individual items are included in this category? Hint: The answer is not a bone.

2.            Why aren’t teeth considered bones?

3.            Identify the two major bones which compose the head.

4.            To what bone does the right scapula atach?

5.            Is the left clavicle superior or inferior to the right scapula?

Experiment 7: Physical Skeleton – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

1.            What are the four parts of the upper extremity and the lower extremity of the appendicular skeleton?

2.            Compare and contrast the size and function of the upper and lower extremities of the appendicular skeleton.

3.            What are the three fused bones that make up the coxae of the pelvic girdle? What is their location in relationship to one another?

Experiment 8: Virtual Model – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

1.            How many left metatarsals are there?

2.            Is the right fibula inferior or superior to the patella?

3.            Are the ossa digitorum or the ossa metatarsalia more medial to the body?

4.            Which two bones atach to the patella?

5.            Identify the three bones which comprise the leg.

Experiment 9: Articulations

 Post-Lab Questions

1.            What two ways can joints be classified? What are the three classifications of each type?

2.            Fibrous joints are either sutures or syndesmoses. What is the difference between the two? Give examples of each type.

3.            A symphysis and synchondroses are two classifications of what type of joint? What are the differences between the two classifications?

4.            What allows synovial joints to be diarthrotic?

5.            For the following, match the correct synovial joint to the movement it produces.

Pivot Joint           Gliding Joint Ball and Socket Joint             Condyloid Joint Saddle Joint        Hinge Joint

Movement

Joint

Uniaxial movement, typically flexion or extension

 

Uniaxial rotation

 

Side-to-side and back-and-forth movement

 

Multiaxial movement

 

Concave and convex surfaces of both bones allow for biaxial movement

 

Ellipsoidal fit allows for biaxial movement

 

 

Joint

Articulating Bones

Type of Synovial Joint

Movement

Elbow

 

 

 

Knee

 

 

 

 

Hip

 

 

 

 

Ankle

 

 

 

Wrist

 

 

 

 

Experiment 10: Virtual Model- Skeletal System Coloring Activity

Insert the image for each exercise below:

Left Arm:

Sternum and Clavicles:

Vertebral Column:

Right Hand:

Sacrum:

Legs:

Feet:

Experiment 11: Skeletal System of the Fetal Pig

Table 34: Skeletal Region Observations

Skeletal Region

Observations

Axial Skeleton

 

Appendicular Skeleton

 

Joints

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.            What are some of the similarities and differences you noticed between the human skeletal system and the palpation of the fetal pig skeletal system?

 

 

 

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