BIOL1610 Overview of the Skeletal System

Question # 00631657
Course Code : BIOL1610
Subject: Biology
Due on: 01/09/2022
Posted On: 01/09/2022 04:47 AM
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BIOL 1610 Section OL4

                Overview of the Skeletal System              Final Report

Student Name  Oluwaseyifunmi Sunmola

Student ID          178728

Lesson  Overview of the Skeletal System

Institution           North Carolina Central University

Session Summer Session 2

Course  BIOL 1610 Section OL4

Instructor            Tyjuanna LaBennett

Test Your Knowledge

1.            Label each bone shape in the image below.

2.            Match each term with the best de?nition below.

3.            Classify each statement as relating to either cortical bone or trabecular bone.

Cortical Bone     Trabecular Bone

1              2

The hard-mineralized material that          Forms the porous inner layer of bone forms the outer layer of bones.

Red bone marrow ?lls the internal cavities of this bone type.

Exploration

 1.           Osseous tissue is solid.

True

False

2.            The        is the passageway for blood vessels and nerves at the center of an osteon.

lamella

osteocyte

Haversian canal

lacuna

3.            Where would you ?nd bone marrow?

Osteons

Trabecular Bone

Cortical Bone

None of the above

 

 

4.            A ?at bone is de?ned as a bone in which the length is approximately equal to the width.

True

False

Exercise 1

1.            Compare and contrast the structures of cortical bone and trabecular bone.

The trabecular bone is more porous than the trabecular bone.

Spongy bone(trabecular) does not contain osteons. The cortical bone does. The cortical bone is denser than the trabecular bone.

2.            What is the function of cortical bone? What is the function of trabecular bone?

3.            What are trabeculae? What is their function?

4.            What are Haversian systems? What is their function?

Photo 1: Cortical Bone

Data Table 1: Microscopic Examination of Bone

 Structure            Magni?cation    Comments

Cortical Bone     100x       N/A

Trabecular Bone               100x       N/A

Photo 2: Trabecular Bone

 Exercise 2

1.            How does the structure of vertebrae aid in their function?

2.            How are a patella and scapula similar in form and function?

Photo 3: Skull Lateral View

Photo 4: Skull Anterior View

 Photo 5: General Anatomy Posterior View

 Photo 6: General Anatomy Anterior View

 Data Table 1: Bone Shapes, Functions, and Articulations

 Structure            Shape(s)

Bones of the skull:

Frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal                Flat

Bones of the orbit:

Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid     irregular

Vertebrae:

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral       irregular

Maxilla  irregular

Mandible             irregular

Sternum              ?at

Ribs        ?at

Scapula irregular

Humerus             long

Radius   long

Ulna       long

Carpals short

Phalanges (hands and feet)        short

Pelvis    irregular

Femur   long

Tibia       long

Fibula    long

Tarsals  short

Structure             Skeletal Function

Bones of the skull:

Frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal                Provides protection for the brain.

Bones of the orbit:          Protects the eyeballs

 Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid   

Vertebrae:

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral       To protect the spinal cord.

Maxilla  Holds the teeth

Mandible             Also holds the teeth

Sternum              Forms the thoracic

activity and protects some vital organs.

Ribs        Part of the thoracic activity. Protects lungs and the heart.

Scapula The shoulder joint. Point of attachment for muscles.

Humerus             Form the shoulder joint

Radius   Forms the elbow joint

Ulna       Also forms the elbow joint

Carpals Wrist joint

Phalanges (hands and feet)        Finger bones.

Pelvis    connects the trunk and the legs

Femur   conects the hip and knee joint

Tibia       Connects the knee and ankle joint

Fibula    Next to the Tibia

bone, also connects the knee and ankle joint

Tarsals  Forms the ankle joint

 

Structure             Articulations and/or Associations

Bones of the skull:

Frontal, occipital, parie tal, and temporal               Forms sutures with other bones of the skull; Occipital bone articulates with C1 vertebrae.

 Bones of the orbit: Frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilla,

palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid  sutures

Vertebrae:

Cervical,

thoracic, lumbar, and sacral         facet joint

Maxilla  synovial joint, Gomphosis

Mandible             synovial joint, Gomphosis

Sternum              Symphysis, sternoclavicular, Sternocostal

Ribs        Symphysis, sternoclavicular, Sternocostal

Scapula spheroidal joint

Humerus             spheroidal joint

Radius   proximal and distal radioulnar joint

Ulna       proximal and distal radioulnar joint

Carpals Joints between the

carpal bones, a type of synovial joint

Phalanges (hands and feet)        synovial joint

Pelvis    articulates with the femur

Femur   synovial joint and spheroidal joint

Tibia       plane joints

Fibula    plane joint

Tarsals  A type of hinge joint

Competency Review

1.            The tarsals are classi?ed as          bones.

short

long

irregular

?at

2.                            bones are commonly found in the appendages.

Short

Long

Irregular

Flat

3.            Trabecular bone forms the porous inner layer of bones.

True

False

4.            Osteons are primarily composed of interstitial lamellae.

True

False

5.            is/are the source of hematopoietic stem cells.

Red bone marrow

Yellow bone marrow

Cortical bone

Osteoblasts

6.            A             is an example of an irregular bone.

carpal

femur

rib

vertebra

7.            The ribs are ?at bones that protect the organs in the thoracic cavity.

True

False

8.            Trabecular bone consists of slender trabeculae.

True

False

Extension Questions

1.            Wolff's Law states that bone will be produced when stress is applied, and bone will be resorbed in the absence of stress. What are some potential medical implications of this phenomenon?

2.            Teeth are hard structures in the body that contain a large amount of calcium. They are composed of dentine that is coated in enamel, which cannot be regenerated. They contain a central cavity ?lled with pulp composed of blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue.

Based on this description, should teeth be considered bones? Explain your answer.

 

 

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