main layers of the earths atmosphere

Main Layers of the Earth Atmosphere

While staring at the sky, we at times wonder what lies above it. As kids, we thought about to a great extend. But, little did we imagined that there is such a vast zone over our head. This guide will explain to you the main layers of the earth’s surface with their unique character traits. To start with, here is the composition of the air particles present in the earth’s atmosphere. 

  • Nitrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Argon
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Traces of neon, helium, krypton, hydrogen, and water vapors

On combining up all the above elements, the different layers of the earth’s surface are formed that make the atmosphere in turn. 

The Layers of the Atmosphere – What Lies Above

Troposphere

  • Layer closest to the earth surface 
  • The thickness stretches from 4 to 12 miles respectively
  • This layer has clouds due to the presence of water and dust particles
  • 99% of the water particles are found in this layer of the atmosphere
  • On striding high in the troposphere, the air pressure drops and temperature soars
  • The major portion of the clouds appear in this portion

Stratosphere

  • The second layer extends about 50 km
  • It contains ozone that helps in absorbing the U.V. rays of the sun
  • The absorbed rays are in turn converted into heat
  • Jets and air balloons fly in this zone due to the dry atmosphere
  • The lower stratosphere is an ideal zone for the commercial passenger for the jets
  • The border between the troposphere and stratosphere allows jet streams to flow smoothly

Mesosphere

  • Consists of a topmost layer called the mesopause
  • This layer extends up to 85 km above the planet earth
  • It is the coldest part of the earth’s atmosphere with an average temperature of about 130 F
  • The air in this layer is too thin to breathe. Also, the air pressure drop as one goes down

Thermosphere

  • This layer has low air density, which makes it a part of the outer space
  • The atoms shed the excess of energy in the form of photons producing Aurora Australis
  • This layer absorbs X-rays and U.V. rays from the sun
  • Many satellites orbit rath within the thermosphere
  • This layer shows the aurora, Northern and Southern lights

Exosphere

  • The highest and the thinnest layer
  • Exosphere is said to be the “final frontier” of the earth’s envelope
  • At this point, the earth’s atmosphere meets with the outer space
  • Consists of dispersed particles of hydrogen and helium

Ionosphere

  • Series of regions present in the mesosphere and thermosphere 
  • In this layer, the U.V. radiation from the sun loosens and detach the atoms and molecules from the parent atom and molecules
  • In this process, the electrically charged atoms called ions are formed