Walden HLTH6246 Final Exam Lates 2024

Question # 00652269
Subject: Health Care
Due on: 02/14/2024
Posted On: 02/14/2024 03:36 AM
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HLTH6246 Final Exam

Question 1

The timeline for what type of study might be very short if an entire data file and the relevant supporting documentation can be downloaded from a website?

Primary study

Secondary study

Tertiary study

Quaternary study

Question 2

Which of the following, related to the candidate question, will assist the researcher in determining what is already known about the topic and what new information a new study could contribute?

Meta-analysis

Literature review

Questionnaires

Concept mapping

 Question 3

The researcher who will do the majority of the work is defined as which of the following?

Primary investigator

Lead researcher

Statistical consultant

Mentor

 Question 4

Presenting new research in the form of a poster or an oral presentation can be a particularly useful way to get feedback on a project before submitting the work for review by a journal.

True

False

Question 5

Studies that measure individuals randomly sampled from the same populations at different points in time are using a cohort study approach.

True

False

Question 6

What database, developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, can be helpful for identifying the full extent of a research area and for narrowing the scope of a research area?

PubMed

MedWatch

MeSh (Medical Subject Headings Database)

MEDLINE

Question 7

What type of study design should be used to investigate an exposure that is relatively uncommon but a source of exposed individuals is available?

Time-series study

Panel study

Longitudinal cohort study

Prospective cohort study

 Question 8

Which of the following is usually required when an intervention will be tested in individuals or a community, data will be collected through interaction with individuals, or identifiable private information will be collected?

Exemption from review of the research proposal

Expedited review of the research proposal

Abbreviated review of the research proposal

Full review of the research proposal

Question 9

Which of the following typically spells out expectations and procedures for disclosing conflicts of interest, avoiding research misconduct, reporting research ethics or personal violations, and otherwise exhibiting professionalism?

Advance directives

Informed consent

Certificate of confidentiality

Responsible conduct of research training programs

 Question 10

Which of the following is the first step when designing an experimental study?

Decide on the intervention and eligibility criteria

Define what will constitute a favorable outcome

Decide on what control is an appropriate comparison for the intervention

Select the method for randomizing participants to an intervention or control group

 Question 11

A strong protocol should be detailed enough that the entire methods section of any paper that will result from the project could be written before data collection begins.

True

False

 Question 12

Some case series follow patients for days, months, or even years. In this type of study approach, the case series functionally becomes what type of study?

Cross-sectional study

Cohort study

Case-control study

Correlational study

Question 13

The medical information in patient files is not recorded for research purposes, so records are unlikely to contain all the information that researchers would like to know.

True

False

Question 14

Which process of qualitative data analysis uses the tools of linguistics to analyze the written, spoken, or nonverbal language used by participants?

Narrative analysis

Discourse analysis

Meta-analysis

Mixed methods analysis

 Question 15

If the goal of the study is to understand populations, describe patterns, or ask research questions that are not focused on causality, the best design may be a cross-sectional or cohort study.

True

False

 Question 16

Which section of a paper in the health sciences provides all necessary clues for answering the main research question and demonstrates that those observations are valid, sufficiently comprehensive, and reasonably unbiased?

Abstract

Introduction

Methods and results

Discussion

 Question 17

Under which paradigm do researchers have a relativist perspective that considers reality for each individual to be a function of that person's lived experiences?

Post-positivism

Critical theory

Constructivism

Transformative paradigm

Question 18

Which section of a research article should start with a description of the study population that clearly identifies the sample size and the demographics of the participants?

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Question 19

On a scatterplot used to illustrate correlation, when the points are not exactly linear but a line for trend can be drawn through them, the correlation is said to be which of the following?

Strong

Moderate

Weak

Nonexistent

Question 20

The variables used as matching criteria must be considered as exposures during analysis.

True

False

 Question 21

Cross-sectional surveys are used to establish baseline data prior to the initiation of longitudinal studies.

True

False

Question 22

What type of statement provides essential information about research projects to potential research participants so that they can make a thoughtful decision about whether to enroll in a study?

Waiver

Informed consent

Certificate of confidentiality

Advance directive

 Question 23

The methods section should provide information about ethical considerations such as whether inducements were offered, how informed consent was documented, whether community groups were consulted, and which research ethics committees reviewed the project.

True

False

Question 24

Because most journal articles in the health sciences follow the same outline, it is possible to know exactly which paragraphs are needed for a draft even before the first word is written.

True

False

Question 25

The standard expectation is that a study's analyses should have a power of what value or greater?

60%

70%

80%

90%

Question 26

Which statistic is reported as a percentage from 0% to 100%, where higher percentages indicate a greater presence of heterogeneity?

Kappa statistic

Chi-square statistic

Cochran's Q statistic

I 2 statistic

Question 27

Which of the following would be the first step in conducting a cross-sectional survey?

Define a source population

Develop a strategy for recruiting a representative sample

Decide on methods to be used for data collection

Describe the exposure and/or disease status in a population

Question 28

The senior author must be heavily involved in the day-to-day details of the study and meet authorship criteria by providing clarity and direction along the way and by providing critical feedback on the manuscript.

True

False

 Question 29

Paraphrasing accurately requires a level of comprehension that direct quoting does not.

True

False

Question 30

Population health involves humans as the unit of investigation, rather than focusing on molecules, genes, cells, or other smaller biological components.

True

False

Question 31

Proposals for analysis of existing data may be significantly shorter than proposals for new data collection.

True

False

 Question 32

A Gantt chart can be very helpful for visually displaying which of the following?

Research policy

Research protocol

Research timeline

Research outline

Question 33

Investigators who make their data available to the public expect to be coauthors on papers written by independent analysts.

True

False

Question 34

Which of the following is defined as the percentage of members of a population who die of any condition during a specified time period?

Morbidity rate

Mortality rate

Case fatality rate

Proportionate mortality rate

Question 35

Which of the following is a statistical estimate of how close to the population value a sample of a particular size is expected to be?

Chi-square statistic

Confidence interval

Study power

p-Value

Question 36

Studies that can be completed within what time frame may not require further review by the research ethics committee after initial approval?

6 months

1 year

2 years

3 years

Question 37

The goal of recruiting is to maximize the participation rate among members of a sample population so as to yield a study population that is reasonably representative of the source population.

True

False

Question 38

The author guidelines of each journal will indicate what information should be provided in the endmatter of submissions.

True

False

Question 39

Which of the following points toward the selection of key indicators that would provide evidence for the success of the intervention?

Brainstorming

Concept mapping

PICOT

Practical questions

Question 40

When interpreting results of a systematic review, studies that find no statistically significant results for an item of interest are just as valuable as those that find a significant association.

True

False

 Question 41

Factors that might influence the relationships between key exposures and outcomes are referred to as which of the following?

Categorical variables

Potential confounders

Potential variables

Type 2 errors

Question 42

Which of the following is the first step in the editing process?

Making sure the big picture message is being clearly communicated

Making sure the paper has a clear storyline

Making sure the title of the paper reflects the key message of the study

Making sure the introduction overtly asks the main research question

Question 43

Critical reading involves asking a series of questions about what aspect of a study in order to ascertain how well a particular study was designed, conducted, interpreted, and reported and to assess how likely it is that the resulting paper presents the truth about a particular research question in a particular population at a particular place and time?

Internal validity

External validity

Specificity

Sensitivity

Question 44

Which database is sponsored by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and features only journals that have applied for inclusion and passed through a review process?

LILACS

MEDLINE

SciELO

EBSCO

Question 45

Developing an "elevator pitch" that tells the main lesson learned from the project in 30 seconds can greatly assist researchers who process their thoughts in which manner?

Orally

Verbally

Kinesthetically

Intellectually

Question 46

Recording responses to open-ended questions verbatim without rephrasing, paraphrasing, "correcting," or interpreting them is an example of what type of characteristic of well-trained interviewers?

Honest

Careful

Impartial

Consistent

Question 47

Most researchers serve as what type of coauthors before moving into the lead author role for the first time?

Mentors

Consultants

Middle coauthors

Last author

Question 48

Some universities require a professor to be listed as the PI on any research project that involves human subjects even if a student is taking the lead role in the conduct of the project.

True

False

 Question 49

Defining the study question and identifying partners is the first step in planning what type of analysis?

Primary analysis

Secondary analysis

Tertiary analysis

Systematic review

Question 50

In what manner are authors generally listed on a manuscript?

In alphabetical order

In order according to level of education

In order according to contribution to the project

In reverse order according to contribution to the project

Question 51

Short reports may be limited to as little as 800 to 1,000 words with only one table or figure allowed.

True

False

 Question 52

Once a meeting is scheduled, all conversations will yield a mentor-mentee relationship.

True

False

Question 53

Regardless of which analytic approach is used, the research protocol should include specific plans for promoting compliance and minimizing dropouts.

True

False

Question 54

If the power estimates for a study are lower than desired, the easiest way to improve the power is to increase the sample size.

True

False

 Question 55

For a research project to be considered original, it needs to have only one substantive difference from previous work.

True

False      

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