is defined as a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance

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1. One way scientists can search for genes that are associated with rare disorders is by carrying out ________, in which they first find genetic markers, then look for inheritance patterns in large families where a particular condition is common.

a. experimental studies

b. psychometric studies

c. linkage studies

d. noncoding studies

2. Which school of thought in psychology evolved into an elaborate theory of personality that emphasized unconscious motives and conflicts?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychoanalysis

3. When a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor site and decreases the negative charge, it causes ________.

a. severe nerve pain

b. an excitatory effect

c. an inhibitory effect

d. either an excitatory effect or an inhibitory effect

4. The research method used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions is called _______________.

a. critical thinking

b. trained introspection

c. experimentation

d. conceptual proliferation

5. Which of the following is the correct definition of the term “genome”?

a. The chromosomal molecule that transfers genetic characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins.

b. A segment of DNA that varies among individuals, has a known location on a chromosome, and can function as a genetic landmark for a gene involved in a physical or mental condition.

c. The full set of genes in each cell of an organism (with the exception of sperm and egg cells),

together with noncoding DNA located outside the genes.

d. A change in gene frequencies within a population over many generations; a mechanism by which genetically influenced characteristics of a population may change.

6. The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles is called the ________.

a. sympathetic nervous system

b. parasympathetic nervous system

c. somatic nervous system

d. central nervous system

7. Researchers use descriptive statistics when they want to ________.

a. draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are

b. organize and summarize research data

c. combine and analyze data from many studies

d. assess how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance

8. ___________ are DNA segments that vary considerably among individuals and whose locations on the chromosome are already known.

a. Bases

b. RNA

c. Genomes

d. Genetic markers

9. The central nervous system is usually conceptualized as having two components, which are ________.

a. the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

b. the brain and the spinal cord

c. the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system

d. the brain and the nerves

10. __________ are usually sources of hypotheses, rather than tests of hypotheses. a. Correlational studies

b. Case studies

c. Psychological tests

d. Regression analyses

11. Which school of thought in psychology tried to explain how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person adapt to the environment?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychiatry

12. Skepticism in scientific research means ________.

a. acquiring knowledge by means of observation or experimentation

b. refusing to accept empirical evidence

c. believing a claim is true unless you have evidence that it is wrong

d. treating conclusions, both new and old, with caution

13. The ______ activates the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine which produce energy and alertness.

a. autonomic nervous system

b. somatic nervous system

c. hippocampus

d. lymphatic system

14. Which technique uses radio frequencies and a magnetic field to produce images of the brain? a. EEG

b. PET

c. MRI

d. TMS

15. The input and output of the central nervous system is handled by the ________.

a. lymphatic system

b. endocrine system

c. cardiovascular system

d. peripheral nervous system

16. _______________ had the opinion that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

a. William James

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. Sigmund Freud

d. E. B. Titchener

17. An important role of the spinal cord is ________.

a. processing and storing of incoming sensory information

b. control of reflexes above the neck

c. monitoring of the activity of the internal organs

d. control of automatic reflexes below the neck

18. A major disadvantage of using laboratory observation in a research study is that ______.

a. the presence of researchers may cause participants to act differently than they would in their natural surroundings

b. it can be used only for explaining behavior and not for describing it

c. it is often considered unethical

d. researchers have less control of the situation than they do in a naturalistic observation

19. Who established the first psychological laboratory in 1879?

a. Sigmund Freud

b. John Locke

c. William James

d. Wilhelm Wundt

20. Critical thinkers should approach psychology textbooks as ______.

a. being almost entirely correct

b. an opportunity to generate alternative explanations

c. being almost entirely incorrect

d. a way to reduce uncertainties

21. __________ psychology addresses the full spectrum of human behavior, both the commonplace and the exceptional.

a. Popular

b. Scientific

c. Medical

d. Maladaptive

22. The part of neurons that receive messages from nerve cells and look like the branches of a tree are called ______.

a. axons

b. neurotransmitters

c. dendrites

d. cell bodies

23. Which of the following transmit messages away from cell bodies to neurons, muscles, or gland cells?

a. axons

b. neurotransmitters

c. dendrites

d. glial cells

24. Which of the following is the correct order for scientific research?

a. evidence, prediction, hypothesis, theory

b. prediction, evidence, hypothesis, theory

c. hypothesis, evidence, theory, prediction

d. theory, hypothesis, prediction, evidence

25. ___________ is defined as a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group. a. Heredity

b. Heritability

c. Diversity

d. Expressivity

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