EHC4498 Week 4 EXAM

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Due on: 06/27/2022
Posted On: 06/26/2022 08:56 PM
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Week 4 EXAM

Multiple Choice

1.            Evaluation users should be involved with evaluation to:

A)           judge the utility of the evaluation design.

B)            know strengths and weaknesses of the evaluation.

C)            identify differences in criteria for judging evaluation quality.

D)           learn about methods.

E)            All of these are correct.

2.            Which of the following goes beyond merely documenting that the objectives were met by quantifying the extent to which the interventions seem related to changes observed or measured among program recipients?

A)           Outcome documentation evaluation

B)            Outcome assessment evaluation

C)            Outcome interpretation evaluation

D)           Outcome progression evaluation

3.            Which of the following results from minimizing natural flaws associated with doing evaluations that might otherwise diminish the evaluator’s ability to identify the amount of effect of the program?

A)           Rigor

B)            Quality

C)            Accuracy

D)           Precision

4.            What type of study design, which comes from the field of analytic epidemiology, was initially developed for situations in which exposures are not manipulated but assessed as they naturally occur?

A)           Experimental designs

B)            Quasi-experimental designs

C)            Observational designs

D)           Longitudinal designs

5.            What type of study design, when used with random assignment, is considered the clearest of evaluation designs?

A)           One-group pretest/posttest

B)            One-group posttest only

C)            Two-group pretest/posttest

D)           Two-group posttest only

6.            Which of the following occurs when the process of being involved in providing the pretest data in some way affects the posttest data?

A)           Testing effect

B)            Selection bias

 C)           Instrumentation

D)           Manipulation

7.            For population-based evaluations, it is highly desirable to have what type of data on members of the population to determine if an intervention effect occurred?

A)           Ordinal data

B)            Baseline data

C)            Aggregate data

D)           Qualitative data

8.            What type of study design is generally used when the outcome is bounded?

A)           Retrospective case-control design

B)            Two-group prospective design

C)            Multiple-group time-series design

D)           Ecological design

9.            Which of the following refers to the loss of participants over time due to their dropping out of the program and/or evaluation, moving away, being lost to follow-up, or death?

A)           Attrition

B)            Manipulation

C)            Maturation

D)           Instrumentation

10.          What type of design considers the differences between groups rather than individuals and is used most often to determine whether there is an association between an exposure and a health consequence at the population level?

A)           Retrospective case-control design

B)            Two-group prospective design

C)            Multiple-group time-series design

D)           Ecological design



Multiple Response

1. Which of the following contributes to the difficulty in finding any effect from a program intervention?

A)           Having a weak or ineffective intervention

B)            Having measures with low validity

C)            Having measures with low reliability

D)           Having low coverage


1.            True or False? When epidemiologic designs are used for program evaluation, they are no longer purely observational.

2.            True or False? In general, designs with fewer flaws are more complex and costly and are usually more likely to demonstrate a causal relationship between the health program and outcomes.

3.            True or False? Evaluation questions that ask whether the intervention changes the unbounded outcome at the individual level are best answered through observational designs.

4.            True or False? Effect size and power are the same.

Short Answer

1.            The goal of evaluation is social accounting and program or policy decision making, and the goal of is to generate new knowledge for prediction.

2.            Techniques used to collect data are         .

3.            The technique to collect data is called methods, and the overall plan for when and from whom data are collected is called    .


1.            A community agency wanted to know if its school condom distribution program was having an effect on rates of sexually transmitted diseases among teens. The only available and relevant secondary data was collected a few years prior, but the stakeholders did not believe that this data reflected their community. In addition, the local school board denied evaluators access to its students to collect evaluation data. Therefore, the program staff was forced to restate its question to focus on the number of students who received free condoms from the program over the past year. The revised evaluation question is what type of evaluation?

2.            Under what circumstance would missing data have only a minimal effect on the analysis and subsequent findings?

3.            State whether each of the following examples is an issue of reliability or validity:

4.            What alternative term has been suggested recently for hard-to-reach? Why?

5.            How does purposive sampling differ from random sampling?

6.            Calculate a response rate using the following information. Out of 600 questionnaires assessing alcohol consumption sent out to the junior class at Layetteville High School, 450 were returned; 10 had responses marked only on the front pages (the back pages were omitted); and 10 were returned blank.

7.            Is accomplishment of client goals a reliable data source?

8.            List two ways to calculate an effect size.

9.            Write the basic formula for calculating a response rate from a survey using a questionnaire.

10.          What is the main reason low response rates are of concern?

11.          For each of the following, indicate whether it relates to nonresponse bias or response bias.

A)           Social desirability

B)            Attrition

C)            Response set pattern

D)           Hard-to-reach


1.            Provide the corresponding number of the correct examples of measures of inputs or outputs.

1.            Mediating variable

2.            Units of observation

3.            Sensitivity

4.            Ordinal variable Ans: Provides a rank

5.            Interval variable

6.            Moderating variables

7.            Nominal variables

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