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Rasmussen MA279/BSC2347 full course October 2018

Question # 00594183
Subject: Biology
Due on: 06/30/2018
Posted On: 10/15/2018 04:14 AM
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Module 01 Discussion - Needle Exchange

The incidence rate of Hepatitis C infection, the most common blood-borne infection in the United States, has more than doubled since 2004 (Zibbell, 2018). The opioid crisis in the U.S. has largely contributed to this increase because shared needles among injection drug users is the primary factor in hepatitis C transmission.

Needle exchange programs allow drug users to safely exchange used needles for little or no cost. As of 2011, 211 needle exchange programs existed in the United States (Green, 2012) and many more have been implemented since then.

In your post, address the following questions:

· Are needle exchange programs effective at reducing blood-borne disease transmission?

· Should more state or federal government agencies set up needle exchange facilities to help combat blood borne diseases or do they encourage the use of drugs?

· Is there a better method to help combat blood borne diseases contracted through shared needles?

rasmussen MA279/BSC2347 module 1 case study

QUESTION 1

Jasper is a 7-year-old boy who has had flu-like symptoms for several weeks. It was mild at first, but his parents notice that he has been getting worse. They took him to his pediatrician last week, but he was sent home with suggestions to use OTC medication to treat his symptoms while his body recovered from what appeared to be a mild infection. Jasper appears weak, has lost 3-4 pounds in the last month, and has been complaining of headaches. Jasper’s parents have now brought him back to the clinic and another physician orders a CBC.

What is a CBC? In your own words, briefly describe why it is useful.

Path: pWords:0

1 points

QUESTION 2

The physician suspects that Jasper may have leukemia. Which of the lab results most likely lead the physician to this conclusion?

Abnormal WBC count

Normal RBC count

High hemoglobin level

High platelet count

1 points

QUESTION 3

Jasper exhibits many symptoms that could relate to a diagnosis of leukemia. List and briefly explain 2 other symptoms of leukemia that are NOT mentioned in this case study.

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1 points

QUESTION 4

Because of Jasper’s age, which type of leukemia is the most likely?

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia

1 points

QUESTION 5

If Jasper has ALL, which of the following lab results is most likely?

High immature lymphocyte count

Low neutrophil count

Low eosinophil count

High platelet count

1 points

QUESTION 6

What is the most common type of childhood leukemia? In your own words, briefly describe the pathophysiology of the disease.

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1 points

QUESTION 7

Which of these tests would NOT be helpful in diagnosing leukemia?

Peripheral blood smear

CT scan

Bone marrow biopsy

Bone density scan

1 points

QUESTION 8

In your own words, briefly describe the difference between myelogenous and lymphocytic leukemia.

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1 points

QUESTION 9

Which of the following is NOT a treatment option for ALL?

Chemotherapy

Surgery

Bone marrow/stem cell transplants

Radiation therapy

1 points

QUESTION 10

Assuming that Jasper has the most common type of childhood leukemia, what is his prognosis?

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1 points

QUESTION 11

Elsa is an 11-month-old girl. Her parents have brought her to her pediatrician because they have noticed she seems lethargic and pale. Both parents have noticed that she appears bloated, doesn’t want to eat as much as she has before, and is tired and “cranky all the time.” They suspected she might be suffering from anemia, since she was being fed a low-iron formula, so they had switched to a high-iron formula. The change made no difference in her symptoms. The pediatrician notes that Elsa’s belly appears swollen. Her vital signs show that her temperature is normal and her heart rate is on the low end of the normal range for her age. She has dropped from the 50th percentile in height and weight (at her last check-up) to the 10th percentile in both height and weight.

Blood test results:

Hemoglobin: 5 g/dl

RBC: 4.6x106 cells/ml

MCV: 65

WBC 15,000 cells/ml

Platelet count: 250,000

Which of Elsa’s symptoms is NOT typical of anemia in infants?

Paleness

Tiredness

Slow heart rate

Loss of appetite

1 points

QUESTION 12

In your own words, briefly describe why Elsa’s parents changed her formula to the high-iron baby formula.

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1 points

QUESTION 13

Which of her blood test results is within normal range?

Hemoglobin

Red blood cell count

Mean corpuscular volume

White blood cell count

1 points

QUESTION 14

Elsa’s blood sampled was analyzed under a microscope and it was determined that her red blood cells were “hypochromatic” and “microcytic.” Explain, in your own words, what these terms mean.

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1 points

QUESTION 15

Elsa’s pediatrician suspects that she has thalassemia. Which of the following statements is true of thalassemia?

Thrombocytes tend to “stick together” and form blood clots.

Thalassemia is always caused by diet and environmental factors, not genetic makeup.

Thalassemia is also known as erythroblastic anemia and involves a reduced amount of hemoglobin in the blood.

Thalassemia is a type of hemophilia and is often hereditary in females.

1 points

QUESTION 16

In your own words, explain why hemoglobin is important in hematology.

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1 points

QUESTION 17

It is determined that Elsa is experiencing beta-thalassemia major. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding this diagnosis?

The cause of beta-thalassemia is genetic.

Beta-thalassemia major is a grave condition and has a high mortality rate.

Beta-thalassemia major is often treated with blood transfusions.

Because beta-thalassemia is an x-linked trait, it affects males more often than females.

1 points

QUESTION 18

Because Elsa has received a confirmed diagnosis of beta-thalassemia major, which of the following statements is true about her parents?

Only her mother carried the gene that caused her blood disorder.

Only her father carried the gene that caused her blood disorder.

If her parents have another child naturally, there is a 100% chance that the second child will be diagnosed with beta-thalassemia major.

If her parents have another child naturally, there is a 25% chance that the second child will be diagnosed with beta-thalassemia major.

1 points

QUESTION 19

As Elsa gets older, which of the following choices is NOT a likely complication of her disorder?

Splenomegaly

Gallstones

Cirrhosis

Decreased gastrointestinal iron absorption

1 points

QUESTION 20

In your own words, briefly describe how thalassemia is related to Elsa’s failure to thrive.

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1 points

Module 02 Discussion - Heart Disease

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of deaths in the United States, equating to about 1 in every 4 deaths, even though CVD is largely preventable. Recently, various studies have shown promise with stem cell therapy treating heart disease.

Research stem cell therapy in the treatment of heart disease and the possible promises it has as a therapy. In your post, address the following questions.

  • Should science and healthcare professionals pursue this a treatment option for heart disease? Why or why not?
  • What obstacles and issues would scientists need to overcome in order for stem cell therapy to become a mainstream treatment for heart disease?
  • Which types of CVD could be treated with stem cell therapy?
  • What kind of financial/societal impacts would stem cell therapy have on the healthcare system?

Reference

MA279/BSC2347 MODULE 2 CASE STUDY

QUESTION 1

Rashidah is a 55-year-old female who is experiencing acute chest pain and shortness of breath. She describes the pain as “pressure and squeezing.” When she becomes nauseous and light-headed, her son insists that he take her to the emergency room.

Health History: She started smoking when she was 18, attempted to quit several times in her 40s, and had her last cigarette on her 50th birthday. She has been overweight for most of her adult life, but has gained 20 pounds in the last few years, which increased her BMI to 34. The last time she had a physical exam was when she turned 50. Her vital signs and blood test results from that exam are listed below.

BP: 178/90

HDL: 62 mg/dl

LDL: 190 mg/dl

Triglycerides: 174 mg/dl

Total cholesterol: 252 mg/dl

Fasting blood glucose: 128 mg/dl

Which of these statements is most likely correct?

Rashidah is experiencing a stroke.

If Rashidah’s symptoms persist even when she rests, she is experiencing angina.

Rashidah is likely experiencing a myocardial infarction.

Since Rashidah’s symptoms are acute, she is likely suffering from a respiratory disorder.

1 points

QUESTION 2

In the emergency room, multiple tests are performed. Which of these results would confirm myocardial damage?

Decrease myoglobin

Elevated troponin and creatine kinase

Elevated blood glucose levels

Increase in WBC count

1 points

QUESTION 3

Which of Rashidah’s physical exam lab test results was within normal limits for her age and sex?

HDL

LDL

Total cholesterol

Fasting blood glucose

1 points

QUESTION 4

Given her last physical exam results, Rashidah’s physician believes she has likely had undiagnosed atherosclerosis for years. Briefly describe the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

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1 points

QUESTION 5

Rashidah’s most recent Body Mass Index indicates that she is:

Underweight

Healthy

Overweight

Obese

1 points

QUESTION 6

Which of the following statements is true?

Rashidah’s lab results and history tell us that she has Metabolic Syndrome.

Rashidah’s heart attack was likely caused by a pulmonary embolism.

Rashidah’s heart attack was likely unrelated to her history of smoking.

Rashidah’s risk of a repeat heart attack is very low.

1 points

QUESTION 7

A coronary angiography is performed and shows a complete blockage of the LAD. Briefly describe what this means.

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1 points

QUESTION 8

Which of the following treatments would help correct Rashidah’s condition?

Surgical placement of a stent in the left descending artery

Surgical repair of her aorta

Mitral valve replacement

Vitamin K supplementation

1 points

QUESTION 9

Rashidah quit smoking 5 years ago, but still suffered a myocardial infarction. She is tempted to start smoking again since quitting “obviously didn’t make me healthier.” What does research tell us about her future health risks if she resumes smoking?

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1 points

QUESTION 10

Before Rashidah is discharged from the hospital, her care team informs her that she may experience stable angina, a form of chest pain, in the future. Briefly explain how angina is different from the pain associated with a myocardial infarction.

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1 points

QUESTION 11

Roberto is a 78-year-old male who has recently been diagnosed with Class III Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). His physician told him that his left ventricle has become stiff and cannot relax. Although there is no current treatment that can “fix” Roberto’s condition, he is prescribed two medications- an ACE inhibitor and beta blockers.

There are multiple types of CHF. Which of these types does Roberto have?

Systolic heart failure

Diastolic heart failure

Right-sided heart failure

None of these choices is correct.

1 points

QUESTION 12

Which of these statements is most likely true of Roberto’s current symptoms?

He doesn’t experience any symptoms at all at rest or during exercise.

He has no symptoms at all during rest, but experiences palpitations, fatigues, and shortness of breath during mild exercise.

He experiences fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations at rest and is not able to participate in any physical activity.

1 points

QUESTION 13

Because of the dysfunction of Roberto’s left ventricle, which of these findings is most likely?

Decreased cardiac output

End-diastolic volume is increased significantly

Decreased diastolic pressure in the left ventricle

Increase in stroke volume

1 points

QUESTION 14

Briefly describe how beta-blockers will influence Roberto’s heart function, specifically the physiology of the ventricles.

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1 points

QUESTION 15

Briefly describe how ACE-inhibitors will influence Roberto’s heart function.

Path: pWords:0

1 points

QUESTION 16

Roberto’s doctor orders several tests of his heart function, including “ejection fraction.” Briefly explain what an ejection fraction measures. (Include what a normal measurement would be.)

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1 points

QUESTION 17

Which of the following conditions may have led to Roberto’s CHF?

Faulty heart valves

Hypertension

Myocarditis

Prior heart attacks

All of these choices are correct.

1 points

QUESTION 18

Which of the following choices is NOT a risk factor for developing CHF?

Sleep apnea

Obesity

Heart arrhythmias

History of leukemia

1 points

QUESTION 19

Which heart valve opens to allow blood to leave the left ventricle?

Mitral valve

Tricuspid valve

Pulmonary valve

Aortic valve

1 points

QUESTION 20

Further testing reveals that Roberto has hypertrophy of the left ventricle. How does this finding relate to his diagnosis?

A & P II – Module 2 Quiz

• Question 1

1 out of 1 points

For the heart to contract effectively, the right side of the heart contracts while the left side of the heart fills with blood and then the left side contracts while the right side of the heart fills with blood?

• Question 2

1 out of 1 points

What statement is NOT true regarding the circuits of the body and the heart?

• Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Which statement is true regarding the heart?

• Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the pathway of blood through the heart?

• Question 5

1 out of 1 points

What statement is NOT true regarding the cardiac conduction system?

• Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Trabeculae carneae are commonly found in the atria and ventricles?

• Question 7

1 out of 1 points

What is true of the chordae tendineae?

• Question 8

1 out of 1 points

The normal resting rate of the heart is set by the SA node but the overall heart rate can be influenced by the sympathetic nervous system.

• Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Which statement is NOT true regarding the heart?

• Question 10

1 out of 1 points

The pericardium of the heart provides an ability of the heart to contract in a frictionless surface and consists of one thick connective tissue layer?

• Question 11

1 out of 1 points

What statement is NOT true regarding cardiac tissue?

• Question 12

1 out of 1 points

The coronary arteries are branches off the pulmonary arteries that supply the heart the layers of the heart with blood.

• Question 13

1 out of 1 points

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the cardiac conduction system?

• Question 14

1 out of 1 points

The contraction of the heart follows which sequence?

• Question 15

1 out of 1 points

The cardiac conduction system allows for the heart to contract in a very coordinated mechanism that is dependent upon the AV node to generate the electrical impulse.

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Rasmussen MA279/BSC2347 full course October 2018

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