Demographic Transition Model Definition and Stages

Demographic Transition Model | Definition and Stages 

The demographic transition model refers to the historical shift from high birth and infant death rates to low birth rates and low infant rates in a society. Society’s resources might also shift from minimal to advanced technology, education, and economic development. As the country advances from pre-industrialized to an industrialized economic system, it needs a track of the population. 

Demographic transition model = The movement of high birth and death rates / low birth and death rates

The Main Stages of Transition

Stage 1

The pre-industrial society phase is when the birth rates and death rates are high yet believed to be roughly balanced. The population growth is too slow because of the food supply constraints society. 

Unless society develops new technologies to increase food supply, the death rates will remain to fluctuate. The demographic transition model is a generalization that applies to these societies as a group. Yet, it may not describe all individual cases. 

Stage 2

The developing country phase leads to a fall in death rates and increases in population. Due to this second stage, Europe initiated the Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. Death rates drop due to the availability of food and sanitation. There were also some agricultural improvements like crop rotation, seed drill technology, and so on. Population growth is rapid and high. Thus the gap between births and deaths becomes wider and wider. 

Stage 3

Lower birth rates due to contraceptive measures and an increase in wages along with the upliftment of women by seeking education. The decline in birth rate fluctuates from nation to nation over some time. Besides this, the urbanization played a significant role in declining the death ratio. Population growth begins to level off, and the model becomes less triangular. 

Stage 4

In stage four, the birth and death rates are low. Drop in the birth rates due to the follow up of two kids per family theory. There are more opportunities for people to choose if they want children or not. Since women are gaining more independence and work opportunities. This stage gives way to the shrinking population. 

Stage 5

Initially, the demographic transition model has only four stages, but the fifth stage is added to claim both more fertile and less fertile futures. The fertility rate begins to transition either upwards or downwards. Wealthier people have less number of children due to evolutionary biology. Indefinitely the birth rate will stabilize at a low level.  

E.g., The rates sore in Mexico and India while the rates decreased in Australia and China.