10 Common Types of Acids with Sources

10 Common Types of Acids with Sources

An acid is a chemical species that donates protons and hydrogen ions and accepts electrons. The acidity of a liquid depends on the concentration of H+ ions only. The higher the concentration of H+ ions, the lower the PH it develops and gets high acidity. The origin of the word acid took place from the Latin word acidus or acere, which refers to sour. That is, a mixture with a ph of less than seven and sour in taste is acid. Now, there are different types of acids with their unique formula and characteristics. Here are the sources of these acids that you must know. But let’s first get the basics clear with:

Characteristics of an Acid

  • An acid has a PH of less than seven i.e.; below neutral
  • The evidence of the low PH of acids is the conversion of blue litmus paper with red
  • The acids usually taste sour like vinegar
  • The acids have an odor that of burning sensation 
  • The texture of acid is sticky and slippery
  • Acids have the tendency to react with metals to produce hydrogen gas

Different Sets of Acids with the Definition

Arrhenius Acid 

As per this definition, an acid is a substance that adds Hydronium ions to the water, thus increasing its concentration.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

An acid acts as a proton donor. Any substance that deprotonates itself into typical acids, plus amines, or alcohol is an acid.

Lewis Acid

It is a compound that accepts an electron pair and forms a covalent bond. 

Now acids when defined categories into two:

Strong Acids – The acid that completely dissociates into its ion when in water

E.g.: Hydrochloric Acid

Weak Acids – The acid that partially dissociates into its ions when  in water

E.g.: Acetic Acid

Types of Acids with Examples

Acetic Acid

Also known as ethanoic acid

Formula: CH3COOH

Source: Vinegar 

Boric Acid

Also known as acidum boricum

Formula: H3BO3

Source: White crystalline powder 

Carbonic Acid

Also known as aerial acid

Formula: H2CO3

Source: Rainwater 

Citric Acid

Also known as 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid

Formula: C₆H₈O₇

Source: Lemon 

Hydrochloric Acid

Also known as marine acid 

Formula: HCl

Source: Produced in the stomach to digest food

Hydrofluoric Acid

Also known Hydrogen fluoride

Formula: HF

Source: Treatment of mineral fluorite

Nitric Acid

Also known as aqua fortis 

Formula: HNO3

Source: Explosives and Ink

Oxalic Acid

Also known as ethanedioic acid

Formula: C2H2O4

Source: Metal cleaner, green leafy food, and bleach

Phosphoric Acid

Also known as orthophosphoric acid

Formula: H3PO4

Source: dental etchant and rust inhibitor

Sulfuric Acid 

Also known as battery acid and dippling acid 

Formula: H2SO4

Source: Lead batteries and drain cleaners 

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